Victoria West:

Bas business angels suisse anti aging. Mirela Roznoveanu

According to WorldCat, this is the third effort in the history of Romanian literature and the first in the twenty-first century to present Romanian literature to the English-speaking world. The current work is presented as an original effort brought into the English by ten translators and a team of editors who perhaps learned English from people who have never spoken the language.

Unfortunately, most of the contributions to Romanian Literature as World Literature are difficult to get through. Abounding in parentheses, subordinate clauses, and run-on sentences that run on and on, countless pages discourage the reader. Another characteristic of the new book is that most of its authors aim to rewrite Romanian literary history from the perspective of globalist, anticolonialist, and other currently fashionable theories, not to present Romanian literature as it is according to the Romanian literary canon.

The methodology practiced by the authors of Romanian Literature as World Literature rests mainly on the latest, most eccentric, and fanciest theories spread on American university campuses by professors of globalist, anticolonialist, feminist, and Marxist orientations, theories employed by academics and not by the literary critics featured in leading literary publications of the U. Permeating many of the texts, an overwhelming inferiority complex actually impedes Romanian literature from being seen as a thriving, compelling world literature.

Also, for reasons I cannot understand, writers who do not belong to Romanian literature are forced into the canon. If language does not define bas business angels suisse anti aging place in a national literature, how about the declaration bas business angels suisse anti aging nationality?

Da, mă simt american, sunt american. Sunt şi sibian şi român şi american, dar în cea mai mare parte sunt american. Mă simt acasă în America. Îmi place sensul spaţiului, îmi place libertatea care este reală în America. Când călătoresc în Europa, în România sau chiar în Franţa, după vreo două-trei săptămâni, încep să simt graniţele invizibile ale unei istorii şi tot felul de lucruri care mă apasă, fără să ştiu de ce.

Când mă întorc acasă, mă simt uşurat, îmi pun cum se spune picioarele pe masă, că e mai mult spaţiu. If language and the declaration of nationality are not enough, then what are the criteria for belonging to a literature? Andrei Codrescu, an important American poet of Rayna suisse anti-imbatranire origin, is forced into a schema that pleases one of the new theories on display here.

Here, strange, uncomfortable, improbable, evasive, forbidden, or open spaces are never given. Instead, they are constructed or, better still, continuously reconstructed, quintessentially shape-changing, creme anti-imbatranire pentru pete intunecate de corp what happens to them—how space is made and remade under the auspices of exile, migration, and the like—illuminates and largely parallels the situation and resituation of selfhood in the world.

According to these words, Dimitrie Cantemir must be a Russian author, for he lived in Russia in exile, and a Turkish writer, because he lived in Constantinople in bas business angels suisse anti aging and wrote about the Ottoman Empire, but not a Romanian author; Marquez must be a Mexican and not a Colombian author, for he spent most of his life in Mexico, while Vasile Alecsandri, who traveled for twelve years all over the world, wrote his travel diaries in French, and lived in exile in France, is a French writer.

Another issue is that only 3 of the 16 contributors have the training and qualifications to propose a new narrative of Romanian literature; they are the literary critics and professors Mircea Martin, Mircea A.

Diaconu, and Paul Cernat, all of whom have written books and monographs on the history of Romanian literature and its leading authors. The remaining 13 specialized mainly in the theory of literature, comparative literature, and in marginal aspects or single authors of Romanian literature. Strangely, the most important literary critics and historians of present-day Bas business angels suisse anti aging literature did not contribute to this anthology.

Imre József Balázs specializes in the avant-garde in Transylvanian Hungarian literature, tendencies in contemporary literature, the interculturality phenomenon in Transylvania, and international networks of Surrealism.

Caius Dobrescu teaches literary and cultural theory, lately showing an interest in exploring the connections among literature, terrorism, secularization, and cultural tourism. Alex Goldiş shows an interest in digital humanities, and in quantitative cultural history, literary theories, methods, and critics. Mihai Iovănel co-editor of the General Dictionary of Romanian Literature, 2nd edition has written about Mihail Sebastian, the detective novel, and the ideologies of Romanian post-communist literature.

Doris Mironescu teaches and specializes in the theory of literature, comparative literature, and M. Christian Moraru writes and teaches about cosmodernism, globalization, global imagination, geoaesthetics.

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Carmen Mușat teaches literary theory and cultural studies, her primary areas of research being the interplay of literature and culture, modernism, postmodernism, narrative, intellectual history, and critical and political theory.

Bogdan Ștefănescu teaches and writes about British literature, critical theory, the rhetoric of nationalism, and the comparative study of postcolonialism and post-communism. Andrei Terian specializes in and writes about cultural theory, the history of modern criticism, and comparative and world literature. Mihaela Ursa teaches and writes as a comparatist in the fields of critical theory, fictionality, and gender studies.

That is, what we seek to accomplish is a rereading of this literature as world literature.

Tale Of Revenge He bears a tale so gloom and tragic never to be known Into darkness now fallen, into hatred now grown Like stillborn child drifting in the silent seas Of blood, crushing all his dreams No castle walls can hold the fury in his eyes Devotion for death, now controls his life No gold or silver can bring him consolation Only one thing is left inside him, the desire of revenge One light so cold and pale, sleeping quietly all alone One life so old and gray, wandering away from home Parted with a horrid cry, snow falls on his grief United by the sword of wicked screams What deeds he has done to hear those deadful sounds In the ruins of memories he wanders, forever bound Forever bound to death!

Reaching this goal is premised, with some notable provisos across the collection, on several defining and correlated interpretive routines, theoretical notions, choices, and claims.

This copresence of the national and the worldly, their mutual and multilayered imbrication, is the very matrix of intersectionality and, by the same token, an adequate modality of mapping out national identity, its much-debated uniqueness, and literature as a reliable vehicle for this distinctiveness. The authors maintain that: Simply put, the spaces of the nation and of literature, with everything they imply, no longer coincide.

They never quite did, of course. By then, his work would become the uncontested gold standard of Romanian criticism. Authors here are actually against exceptionalism. But why do we have to be against exceptionalism? Romanian literature is exceptional as any literature on the planet is bas business angels suisse anti aging on its own way.

Exceptionalism is viewed today in politics as a way of reconciliation of patriotism with internationalism. Great Romanian novelists of the second part of the twentieth century—Marin Preda and Nicolae Breban—are not mentioned at all.

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The book under discussion could be read as a blacklist of those disliked by Romanian globalists. Is this anthology then a political manifesto carrying an anti-national message? The introduction desires to captivate the foreign reader with paragraphs hard to follow. As Neil Brenner maintains, the epistemological impasse one faces here has to do with institutions as much as with political cartography and space.

Andrei Terian has published three books: Critica de export: Teorii, contexte, ideologii Bucharest: Editura Muzeul Literaturii Române, ; Teorii, metode și strategii de lectură în critica și istoriografia literară românească de la T. Maiorescu la E. He has published chapters in multi-author anthologies and articles in academic journals. Is this all that is required to rewrite the history of a literature from a supra-statal, anti-autochthonist, posttraditional and postethnic, non-ethno-supremacist, and geoaesthetic point of view with a planetary vision?

  • Наша собственная история, которая представляется нам такой важной, -- не более как запоздалый и, в сущности, тривиальный эпилог, хотя он и настолько сложен, что мы до сих пор не можем разобраться во всех деталях.
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  • Он не знал, что именно ему предстоит обнаружить, но нисколько не сомневался, что найдет нечто существенное.

I guess not. His books are about postmodernism, cosmodernism, globalization, geoaesthetics, geomethodology, and so on. Mircea Martin, the third name on display on the cover of this anthology that seeks to rewrite the history of Romanian literature, is a sort of casualty; his name was chosen to endorse the eccentric corpus fashioned by Moraru and Terian.

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We are told in the introduction that Romanian literary criticism is in very bad shape and needs to be saved from itself: Breaking the epistemological mold of methodological nationalism and thus marking, in Romania as well, a new stage in literary and intellectual historiography, young critics such as Caius Dobrescu, Oana Strugaru, Alex Goldiș, Adrian Lăcătuș, Paul Cernat, Teodora Dumitru, Carmen Mușat, Alexandru Matei, Andrei Bodiu, Mihaela Ursa, Crina Bud, Mihai Iovănel, and Andrei Terian canvas more and more systematically these networks and their geoaesthetic nodes.

So, I will repeat: what are the criteria for belonging to a national literature? The birth certificate, geography, or the language? It urges on us the entire planet as a unit of analysis. If this book does not cover the Romanian classics, the task of rewriting Romanian literary history makes no sense. Where are Rebreanu, Macedonski? Looking at the Index, Macedonski is not cited at all; Ion Barbu is cited 6 times, Bacovia cited 4 times in enumerations, Slavici cited 5 times, all tossed bas business angels suisse anti aging different chapters; Rebreanu is cited 5 times, compared with Norman Manea, 11 times with dedicated pages; Papadat-Bengescu is cited 5 times, Mariana Marin 4 times; Maiorescu 10 times compared with Cărtărescu, 17 times with dedicated pages, and so on.

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Romanian folklore does not even have an entry in the Index—perhaps because it is national? It is just mentioned a few times in the article about Eminescu; Creangă gets 3 mentions in the Index. My guess is that Moraru and Terian handed a mandatory bibliography to the selected contributors of this anthology, for each contributor cites almost the same theoretical productions. The misrepresentation of Romanian literature is brutal. However, we are told that there is hope.

Is this mandatory? Unlike Solomos [Greece], Mickiewicz [Poland], Petőfi [Hungary], or Botev [Bulgaria], he did not participate in any of the armed insurgencies of his own people, nor did he carry out any revolutionary activities for that matter. No wonder he could not do that, for, by the time he reached adulthood, all the heroic moments of the rising modern Romanian State seemed to have already occurred.

Ce carti am mai citit in ultima vreme In articolul meu precedent va scriam despre cartile pe care le-am cumparat anul trecut partea a III-aiar astazi as vrea sa va scriu despre cartile pe care le-am citit in Statul acasa in timpul pandemiei a avut si aspecte pozitive, unul dintre ele fiind faptul ca am avut timp sa citesc mult mai mult decat in anii precedenti; astfel am citit 60 de carti in total indiferite genuri literare -- fictiune, non-fictiune, literatura chic, romane politiste, biografii, autobiografii, carti de moda, carti inspirationale, carti umoristice, poezie, si altele. In ultimii ani am preferat sa citesc mai mult non-fictiune decat fictiune, astfel incat anul trecut am citit doar 7 romane de fictiune in total, iar celelalte carti au fost non-fictiune.

Alecsandri surely fit the job description. Truth be told, he was overqualified. Not only did he take part in the Revolution in Moldavia, but he also played a decisive role in the unification of the two Romanian Principalities.

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The aesthetic is replaced by political, geographical, etc. With an amendment: they are not so because they hate foreigners, but because they hate themselves! With such an introduction to Romanian literature nationalist, regionalist, provincial, marginocentric written by Romanians, I wonder who on earth would be interested in reading it or studying it?

The last price of this book published in on amazon. With this price, not many Romanian critics have the money to buy it and not many libraries in Romania might have this book in their collections.

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Beyond language, Turkish literature and culture, as well as Islamic written tradition, along with their stylistic patterns, have also influenced Hieroglyphic Story, particularly in the fragments of rhymed and rhythmic prose, which echo the Koran. Luckily for Cantemir, [his] linguistic syncretism is after all in no way detrimental to Romanian. The havoc imperialism has wreaked throughout the world is bas business angels suisse anti aging matter of evidence, and this observation bas business angels suisse anti aging is a commonplace.

But such truisms are exactly the point, more precisely, the jumping-off point of my essay: to this day, imperialism has been a major driving force of world history, part and parcel of the very fabric of history. Not only that, but, in all sorts of ways—some of them more egregious than others—empires have set in motion sociocultural and political processes without which, for better or worse, neither most of the national entities as we know them today nor supranational aggregates such as the EU would exist.

This is, in effect, the gist of my argument in the following critical sketch of modern Romanian cultural and literary history. In other words, such influences did not always have assimilationist or colonizing effects. Again, Vasile Alecsandri fits well in the metaimperial bas business angels suisse anti aging, much better than Eminescu; then is Alecsandri more important than Eminescu?

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A politician and diplomat highly sensitive to the emerging international image of sovereign Romania, Alecsandri was involved in Paris and London, after the crushing of the Moldavian revolution, with a quasi-underground network of political radicals from all corners of Europe.

These texts exalt models of bravery over and against a lofty backdrop enlivened by Turkish feats of valor and the presumed gallantry standards of the Russian allies. Embodying the bas business angels suisse anti aging analytically, literary histories illustrating the nationalist paradigm are more or less deliberately built on a closed system of relations involving rigid and discrete notions of time and space.

Such notions and the historiographic approach they enable paint a fragmented, often isolationist, stationary, monolithic, and hierarchically organized panorama of world literatures and of the collective selves these literatures articulate.


Instead, what I propose in rounding off my argument is an interactional model liable to reconstruct Romanian literary history on the premise that such a scholarly enterprise cannot overlook the worldly exchanges that, while they may be more visible today than in the past, have nonetheless given birth to Romanian literature, old and new.

On closer inspection, it becomes clear, however, that outside influences are referenced perfunctorily, in comments on literary movements and periods. Practicing Orthodox Christianity, speaking a Romance language in a region dominated by Slavic nations, lodged at the intersection of Western and Eastern influences, forced to contend for centuries with the brutal expansionism of the Ottoman Empire, on one side, and of Russia, on the other side, Romanians have evolved a culture by steadily assimilating, adjusting, and combining bas business angels suisse anti aging outside tendencies and inputs.

A series of internal and external factors, both intra- and extra-literary, have worked together over the course of time to cupru anti-imbatranire birth to an eclectic yet original culture characteristically marked by a créolité of sorts, by an amalgam of literary styles, typologies, forms, and procedures. Numerous studies dedicated to modern-era literary schools and movements from humanism to the Enlightenment and from the Baroque to classicism, Romanticism, realism, modernism and its derivatives such as Parnassianism, symbolism, the avant-garde, expressionism, and, more recently, postmodernism dwell consistently on what appears to be a characteristic of Romanian culture: given the time gap between the moment when various literary trends arise in Europe and when they are received in Romanian culture, the latter habitually treats all these directions and their corpuses as if they were coeval, hence its tendency to absorb multiple aesthetic doctrines concurrently even when, in their birth countries, they were articulated at different historical moments and, what is more, from positions hardly compatible with one another, as in the case of classicism and Romanticism, for example.

In point of fact, this is why, in Romanian literature, classicism sometimes presents features specific to Romanticism and there are no literary works that can be classified solely as products of the Enlightenment. For the same reason, the Romanian Enlightenment is difficult to distinguish from humanism and the Bas business angels suisse anti aging, and so are classicism and Romanticism and Romanticism and modernism.

In effect, one would be hard pressed to find any Romanian canonical writers who belong exclusively to a certain movement such bas business angels suisse anti aging Romanticism or Symbolism. The situation differs especially where less important literary figures are concerned, who have been inclined to reproduce mechanically, closely and recognizably, ideological tenets, themes, genres, and bas business angels suisse anti aging emblematic to a given literary movement. However, I came across it again more than a decade later as I turned to the comparative study of postcommunism and postcolonialism.

Suddenly, the persistence of the void motif in the identitarian imaginary of formerly colonized cultures from distinct world-systems became an eye-opener. I would salute this anthology if there were at least four or five recent essays in English about Romanian literature as a whole. I have nothing against fresh readings. I like new points of view. However, most of these texts displaying a strong infatuation with new methodologies do not merit being presented as an introduction to Romanian literature.

They award that status, rather, to a Romanian counter- or anti-culture retrospectively constructed by their agenda. Does that mean that patrick swiss roll anti aging book cannot stand on its own feet? To change the paradigm, this book is revealingly parallel to another effort of distortion made by the autochthonous communist collaborators cele mai bune seruri anti-imbatranire 2021 the Russian occupation of the country in Socialist realism, and the Soviet cultural paradigm exported to Romania, excluded classic authors from the teaching of Romanian literature, and threw many masterpieces on the blacklist.

Romanian culture was required to become a communist-socialist culture reflecting the socialist realist criteria imported from the USSR.

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A literature and its aesthetic objects are created according to a forma mentis, the language, tradition, society, and cultural civilization to which they belong, and from which they emerge.

The Romanian cultural civilization is specific, original, and unique, just like any other cultural civilization of the planet, be it French, American, Colombian, or Chinese.

I am also convinced that we cannot understand ourselves if we do not understand others. Learning from and identifying with the thoughts and practices of others, as in this case, no matter how alien they might at first appear, it is important. At the same time, differences in ways of thinking can be both deep and subtle.

Mirela Roznoveanu

Anyone living in that land and speaking that language as their native tongue or one of them would be imprinted by it and would contribute to it. The language and psyche are then further reshaped and complicated by history, developments in culture, communication and coexistence with others, but it is the unique stamp of the language that defines the literature, that is the line or the spine that runs through it.

Since the language shapes the psyche, exile becomes much more problematic—and rich. How is what a Romanian native such as Codrescu writes in English shaped by his mother tongue? On that basis only, maybe such writers do belong in Romanian literature. New York.