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The author acknowledge to anonymous reviewer for their thoughtful suggestions and comments. Pentru Turism, Bucureşti, p. Arhetip, Bucureşti, p.
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Sport-Turism, Bucureşti; Panizza M. An introduction, Géomorphologie : relief, processus, environnement, nr. Friedrich Pfeil Munchen, p. Carta Geol. Cuza No 13, Craiova, Romania, e-mail: sboengiu central. Cuza No 13, Craiova, Romania, e-mail: asorin clicknet.
All the aforementioned events led to the formation of the terraces of the Danube along the sector Gura Văii - the mouth of the Olt River.
By the end of the Romanian, within the Oltenia Plain, the continental phase that brought to the formation of the present landforms began. The development of the eos energie west swisland anti aging plain occurred on the background of the deterioration of the piedmont structure that was located along the Carpathian-Balkan curvature.
The start of the destruction of the piedmont structure coincides with the formation of the Danube course and the development of its hydrographical system.
The erosion of the piedmont structures and the development of a terrace plain functioning as a depression occurred on the background of the Pleistocene climatic oscillations, of the rightward deviation of the Danube, and of the lowering of the base level.
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Thus, it appeared the Danube Valley the width of which reached even 48 km and the depth m, with a terrace system that corresponds to the main palaeogeographic coordinates. All these analysed events and transformations that are rendered by means of GIS lead to the reconstruction of the formation stages and allow a synchronization of the morphologic, climatic, and hydrographic stages. The paleogeographic evolution led to the development of a wide plain on the left of the river, called the Romanian Plain or the Lower Danube Plain.
There can be noticed the following genetic types of plains - piedmont plains, subsidence plains, terrace plains, and tabular plains, which are generally distributed on longitudinal alignments.
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The hypsometrical map of the Oltenia plain The Oltenia terrace plain is an erosion and accumulation depression, entirely developed under the action of the Danube, the southern limit following its lowest part Boengiu, The erosion of the piedmont structures and the formation of a terrace plain that functioned as a depression occurred on the background of the Pleistocene climatic oscillations, of the rightward deviation of the Danube, and of the lowering of the base level.
Thus, presently, in Oltenia, it was proven the presence of eight discontinuously developed terraces Geografia Recenzii bandă antirid pentru față Dunării Româneşti, figure 2. Yellowishreddish loess and loess-like deposits cover the upper terraces, while the lower terraces and the floodplains present sands and dunes.
The analysis of the position of the Danube terraces within Oltenia, their link to the terraces of the Jiu and the Olt rivers, made by many researchers brings us to the conclusion that the evolution of this river is, at least to a certain extend, determined not only by the neotectonic movements which imposed the development of the terraces only on the left of the Jiu River and on the right of the Olt Riverbut also by the Quaternary eustatic modifications, induced by the succession of many glacial and interglacial stages.
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The Romanian research in the field continues to use the Alpine chronology that referring to glaciations in order to correlate the age of the terraces. The relative altitude of terraces, the characteristics of the sediments, and the age of fossils paleonthological method still represent the main methods for terrace dating.
From the granulometric point of view, older deposits are finer than the younger ones, which display larger dimensions of the sediments Pfleiderer, The features of each terrace have also been analysed according to the local trend of geomorphologic modelling conditioned of not by tectonic faults, as well as by the base level.
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In Vojvodina region, Serbia, in the sector Vukovar-Belgrade, sediments dating based on magnetic susceptibility MSwhich was also correlated with the stratigraphy of the marine isotope Markovic et al, The thickness of the analysed deposits generally reached 40 m and there was noticed low concentration of magnetic minerals in loess and high concentration in paleosols. The interpretation by means of rubification index and rock magnetic record eos energie west swisland anti aging these data allowed the reconstruction of the paleoclimatic fluctuations during five glacial and interglacial cycles.
The literature abunds in recent studies about the climatic and tectonic control for the formation of terraces, sediments analysis as well as dating of terrace or adjacent deposits Gibbard, ; Ruszkiczay-Rüdiger, ; Jakab, ; Bridgland,; Gábrisa, ; Buggle, DATA AND METHODS Starting from the evolution of the valleys developed in sedimentary deposits due to the rapid lowering of the base level, we used quantitative data, as well as verifications for the terraces developed on the background of the Quaternary climatic oscillations in analogous cases.
The premises for the GIS analysis of the Danube Valley, located between the Defile and its confluence with the Olt River, are the linear and lateral erosion of the sediments of Carpathian-Balkan origin induced by certain neotectonic movements or by the change of the base level imposed by the climatic oscillations. The geological data indicated by the boreholes made along the Oltenia Plain correspond to Pelletier model only in the immediate proximity of the mountainous area, in all the other cases sedimentation being controlled by marine transgressions and regressions and by the alluvia discharge of the hydrographical systems from the region Enache, Thus, the complexity of the terraces genesis determined us to take into account many models and try to eliminate by means of analysis those models that are not adequate in the eos energie west swisland anti aging of the Danube.
For the sector located between the Danube Defile and Corbului Islet-Stîrmina Hill, the accepted model for the formation of the terraces is the one described by Pelletier Pelletier, These terraces are induced by the alternance of the sedimentation - drainage process, which means that when the alluvial fan is under formation, the drainage is not concentrated, while during the periods characterized by climatic cooling and lowering of the base level, the flow is concentrated along certain channels increase of the bottom erosion.
Thus, it results lateral alluvia are no longer directly influenced by drainage becoming terraces; the process repeated as the base level oscillated.
The channeling of the river along a single bed functioned as a local base level for the hydrographical systems installed on the newly formed terrace. Along the sector between Stîrmina and the confluence of the river with the Olt River, from Pelletier model, we must take into account only the relation between the slow flow, characterized by very wide meanders during warm periods when the base level raised, and the intensive bottom erosion registered during climatic cooling periods when the base level decreased.
We also used orthophotoplans at the scalefor the regions where the limits are not characterized by large variations of level. Thus, the first stage of the research was the georeferenciacion of the satellite images and of the aerophotograms, as well as of the lithological scale, geomorphologic Geografia Vaii Dunarii Romanesti, eos energie west swisland anti aging, hydrogeological scale, and topographical scalemaps.
The overlapping of the cartographic documents allowed the precise identification of the limits between the terraces and of the eventual contradictions, which were solved by means of local altitude determinations and boreholes. On the base of the satellite images, we worked according to Pelletier model when trying to correlate the terraces through the analysis of the torrent processes installed there and of the average altitude, they are located at.
This relation might be explained by the fact that when the eustatic level of the Black Sea raised and, of course, that of the lake located at eos energie west swisland anti aging south of the Poțiune anti-îmbătrânire sims 3, due to the thawing of the glaciers and heavy rainfalls registered during the interglacial stages, the advancement of the river stopped and there occurred a more intense divagation within the floodplain Boengiu, Consequently, the Danube left the former floodplain that remained as a new terrace compared the new riverbed.
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The classical dating of the terraces of the Danube in the studied sector made reference to the chronology of the Alpine glaciers. Thus, we used the correlation Global Chronostratigraphical Correlation for the last 2. Starting from the hypothesis that Planfayon anti-îmbătrânire elvețian 8 th terrace T 8 of the Danube, with a relative altitude of - m, represented the first floodplain of the Danube during the Pre-Günz stage MIS 16, - ka and then it was cut during Günz glacial stage Marković et al,it results that the 7 th terrace T 7 with a relative altitude of - m functioned as a floodplain during Günz - Mindel interglacial stage, being cut in Mindel stage MIS 13 - 15, ka - Günz glacial stage occurred by the end of the Upper Pleistocene St.
Prestian ; in the South of Romania, there was registered a temperate continental climate and the Black Sea was in a lacustrine stage, its shore being located eastwards of its present position Ciauda phase. The first formed terrace generally does not present alluvia.
At the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene, there occurred Günz - Mindel interglacial stage; on the background of a warm and dry climate with seasonal differences, red clays formed.
It followed Mindel glacial stage, when the climate got colder, the level of the Black Sea decreased Paleo-Euxinic phase allowing the deepening and the formation of a new terrace.
The 8 th and 7 th terraces are located only west of the Jiu River eos energie west swisland anti aging precisely to the area were the Baboia Stream and the DesnăŃui River flow out of the piedmont Geografia Văii Dunării Româneşti, The 6 th terrace T 6with a relative altitude of 90 m, functioned as a floodplain during Mindel - Riss interglacial stage and developed during Riss glacial stage MIS 6, ka - In the second part of the Middle Pleistocene, there occurred Mindel - Riss interglacial stage, when climate acquired Mediterranean aspects and the basin of the Black Sea was subject to a transgression Uzulnar phase.
Under these circumstances, lateral erosion exerted by the Danube increased and the river extended its floodplain. By the end of the Middle Pleistocene, it occurred Riss glaciation, climate got colder and the line cupru anti-imbatranire the shore withdrew due to the regression registered during the Middle Euxinic period.
Consequently, the Danube increased its vertical erosion.
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The 5 th terrace T 5with a relative altitude of 70 - 75 m, appeared as a large floodplain during Riss-Würm interglacial stage. It formed during Würm 1 glacial stage MIS 5e [7, 9? The Upper Pleistocene starts with Riss - Würm interglacial stage; on the background of a temperate climate, there occurred a new transgression of the Black Sea Karangat phasethe Danube carried huge amounts of alluvia and increased its lateral erosion.
The last glacial stage, Würm 1, when the climate got periglacial, is characterized by the occurrence of a new regression registered during the Neo-Euxinic phase; the river deepened its course.
The 4 th terrace T 4with a relative altitude of 50 m, functioned as a floodplain during the warm Würm 1 - Würm 2 interglacial stage. By the middle of the Upper Pleistocene, it started the old Black Sea phase, characterized by a general transgression with slow stagnation periods CoteŃ, During Würm 1 - Würm 2 stage, climate became temperate there occurred a transgression, and implicitly a divagation, while during Würm 2 climate became periglacial.
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The 6 ththe 5 thand the 4 th terraces appear along all the sectors of the Oltenia Plain, but not after the confluence of the Danube River with the Argeş River. The 3 rd terrace T 3with a relative altitude.