Francais Roumain

Prochaine eclipse solaire suisse anti aging, Confluente Literare Internationale nr. 10-11 /2017

Rosetti Linguistic Institute Prof. Cuza University of Iaşi Prof. Jacinta A. Raphael C. Elena Drăgoi, nr. An Etymological Perspective Antuza Genescu Abstract: Steven și Chris împotriva îmbătrânirii for murder co-exists, by virtue of the conflict of opposites, with the need of perpetuating the human race.

This etymological study, illustrated with examples from Seneca s and Shakespeare s tragedies, reveals the dual nature of blood that symbolises not only the positive aspects of life sanguis, but also man s negative inclinations which lead, through the act of killing, to cruor gorethe proof of murder itself.

Keywords: sanguis cruor, blood gore opposition, vital fluid, bloodshed Propensity for murder co-exists, by virtue of the conflict of opposites, with the need of perpetuating the human race.

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The conflict between the two extreme human features, one generating life, the other ending it, reveals the dual nature of blood: indispensable for life, it is a symbol of sacrifice and death, poison and cure at the same time.

This etymological study, illustrated with examples from Seneca s and Shakespeare s plays, reveals the dual nature of blood that symbolises not only the positive aspects of life sanguis, but also man s negative inclinations which lead, through the act of killing, to cruor gorethe proof of murder itself.

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Form an anatomical perspective, blood is the vital red fluid that runs through our veins. However, the word acquires other meanings as well Paper presented at the International Symposium Research and Education in Innovation Era, Aurel Vlaicu University of Arad, 5 7th of November PhD Candidate, Faculty of Letters, History and Theology, University of the West, Timişoara, 9 10 and such meanings are frequently used and attested in the dictionaries of the Romanian language: origin, descendants ; sacrifice ; animal breed or disease ; cruelty, murder.

Blood-shedding, either by secrete anti-imbatranire 2021, or by suicide, is as old as blood-letting, which was practised at the beginnings of medicine. The two have totally different purposes, prochaine eclipse solaire suisse anti aging the former kills, while the latter heals. While the flow of blood through the human body to its final destination, the heart, is not a voluntary process, though it may explain human actions and reactions, blood-shedding is a deliberate act and, whatever its reasons, it has always been indictable.

The etymological dictionary of the Latin language, when explaining the entry sanguis, -inis, mentions its archaic form, sanguen Ernout; Meillet, This was used, for instance, by the poet Ennius, prochaine eclipse solaire suisse anti aging Annalium Liber I, where he praised Romulus, in whose veins ran the blood of gods: O pater, o genitor, o sanguen dis oriundum 1.

The two French authors identify three acceptations of sanguis, illustrated with examples taken from various sources, to which we have added quotations barillette suisse anti-imbatranire Seneca s and Shakespeare s plays. Blood, the vital fluid; uir sanguinum : Uirum sanguinum et dolosum abominabitur Dominus 2 Psalms 5, 7 ; Uiri sanguinum oderunt simplicem 3 Proverbs crema antirid biotherm, 10 ; Uae ciuitati sanguinum 4 Ezechiel 24, 6.

Bloodline, ancestry: sanguine coniuncti : per quam sanguine coniunctis 5 Cicero, De Inventione ; A symbol of force, a meaning with which sanguis has always been used: O nimium potens quanto parentes sanguinis uinclo tenes natura 8 Seneca, Phaedra.

According to Ernout and Meillet, in the written language of the Roman classical era and Empire, only sanguis was used, but the Roman forms preserved sanguen. Sanguis generated the following derivatives and compounds, mostly nouns and adjectives, whose explanations, given in brackets, are based on the Latin-Romanian dictionary by Gheorghe Guţu: - sanguineus full of blood, bloody, of the colour of bloodconsanguineus of the same blood, related; brother, sister; consanguinitas blood relation : Martis sanguineas quae cohibet manus 9 Seneca, Medeaet saeua bella Marte sanguineo gerant?

Having been used in all the Latin-speaking territories, the noun cruor, -oris had a specialised meaning, that of gore, thick blood 6 connected to you by blood 7 against those of the same blood 8 O nature, so potent mistress, you hold parents and children with very strong ties of blood 9 she who holds back the bloody hand of Mars 10 fight savage battles with bloody Mars? At first, cruor might have meant raw, bloody meat, but in Latin this meaning was covered by the noun caro Ernout; Meillet, prochaine eclipse solaire suisse anti aging The noun cruor produced the following derivatives: cruentus bloody, cruelwhich in turn led to cruentō, -ās to spill blood, to stain, to defile, to hurt deep inside a figurative meaning and incruentus no blood-shedding.

Guţu also explains the adjective incruentatus not stained by blood. Seneca wrote about cruentis manibus 14 Medea or cruenta Tyndaris 15 Agamemnon.

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Besides bloody, crudus also meant raw, not cooked, and with this meaning it was used as prochaine eclipse solaire suisse anti aging antonym of coctus cooked. The other meanings of crudus, undigested and not digesting, produced cruditas indigestion. Other derivatives of crudus bloody are the verbs crudesco to become more violentincrudesco to become cruel and recrudesco to worsen, to reburst ; 2.

What is most interesting in the last example is the presence of the derivative crudos, besides sanguis and cruor. When describing the labours of Hercules, Seneca used three words of the same semantic field in two successive lines, as they suggest, more powerfully in Latin than in English, violence and cruelty and create a picture that is meant to terrify the eyes as well as the mind.

An intermediate Latin word between sanguis and cruor is the feminine noun sanies, -ei, with two acceptations Prochaine eclipse solaire suisse anti aging and Meillet, The first is that of bloody discharge from wounds, a fluid between blood sanguis and pus pus, tabum ; the terms appears in De medicina, Book V, Chapter 26, a specialised medical text by Parfum anti-imbatranire Ex his autem exit sanguis, sanies, pus.

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Sanguis omnibus notus est: sanies est tenuior hoc, uarie crassa et glutinosa et colorata 23 [emphasis added]. The second acceptation, more common in literature, is the snake venom or any other fluid resembling sanie. Guţu translates sanies with 1. The derivatives of sanies are the adjective saniosus full of sanies, purulent and the verb exsanio, -as to fester, to suppurateboth medical terms used in the Imperial period Ernout and Meillet, Lexically, the Romanian language does not distinguish sanguis from cruor.

Both are translated as sânge bloodand their different acceptations are rendered as the translator feels right.

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Unlike Romanian, English makes a difference between the equivalent of sanguis blood, which generated not only a rich word family consisting mostly of compound adjectives, but also a long list 22 he gave his horses to drink the gore of guests, and the blood of their king last stained their jaws 23 Blood, sanies and pus are discharged from wounds. Everybody knows what blood is; sanies is thinner than blood, but it may vary in stickiness and colour 24 She picks up deadly herbs and squeezes out the snakes venom 25 Never has blood been shed more justly on your altar, o goddess with a bow 26 At the prochaine eclipse solaire suisse anti aging of the banquet, gore cearcane si riduri sub ochi fall into the wine 27 I am ready to drink blood from my enemy s chest 13 14 of phrases and idioms and gore, the equivalent of cruor.

The same authors specify that most frequently the words meaning blood have an obscure origin and belong to the neuter gender, as does the Latin archaic form sanguen, and it is the masculine noun sanguis that had a surprising evolution Ernout; Meillet, The noun gore, which today means blood flowing from a wound mainly in violent situations, was gor in Old English and meant dirt, filth. It has an uncertain origin and the acceptation of clotted blood and blood shed in a battle developed around the 16 th century.

Prochaine eclipse solaire suisse anti aging, the English verb to gore means to wound, but it is used in connection with animals that may cause wounds with their tusks or horns; it might be related to the Scottish term gorren, meaning to stab, or gar, meaning spear in Old English. The adjective gory describes an extremely bloody event. A red statistics of sanguis and cruor in the four Senecan tragedies from which this study has quoted reveals that the former and its derivatives are more frequent than the latter.

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Nevertheless, the most brutal images focus on the fluid of death, the gore that defiles the heroes motherland or, on the contrary, gives the heroes the chance to redeem themselves. The striking visual images in Seneca s and Shakespeare s tragedies focus on cruor, since cruor stains the water as sanguis sometimes stains the killing hadthe field and, most of the times, the altar. Sometimes, cruor only alludes to the abominable prochaine eclipse solaire suisse anti aging fraternus cruor brotherly blood is the blood of Absyrtus, Medea s brother, whom she killed and threw into the sea, defiling its waters, while gemini monimenta cruoris 28 Ovid, Metamorphoses, Book IV alludes to Nessus blood that Hercules received as a gift, a love potion from his wife.

Other times, cruor spurts from Prometheus, in an image as shocking as the scene in which Medea chops her own children. The three-word sequence in Agamemnon, betrayal, death, blood, is a universal summary of both Seneca s and Shakespeare s tragedies.

  1. Les plus anciens « moulins de papier » apparaissent dans les pays roumains au XVI ème siècle, les premières « verreries » produisent des objets de verre dans la Munténie au XVIIe siècle, la production industrielle du fer est initiée par la construction des premiers fourneaux au charbon de bois à Oravita et à Bocsa et dans la 1 Gen.
  2. Toaca - un ziar naţional de spiritualitate şi atitudine ortodoxă
  3. Allure cel mai bun anti-îmbătrânire
  4. Fie că editează poeți români la editura Poètes à vos plumes pe care o conduce la Paris, sau organizează în Franța, la Paris sau Narbonne, evenimente culturale la care invită poeți și pictori români, ilustratori de carte, fie că răspunde invitațiilor de a veni în România, pentru lansări de carte și întâlniri cu scriitori și iubitori de literatură, Linda Bastide și-a înscris în destin relațiile cu România.
  5. Taxe de mediu anti-îmbătrânire elvețiene
  6. Трудно было поверить в то, что они все позабыли.
  7. Приключение завершилось.

Histoire de mots Etymological Dictionary of Latin. A History of Words3 rd ed. Achterloo: An Almost Impossible Reading Abstract: An objective perspective on the Achterloo spiral, a term used by Lutz Tantow so as to refer to the four versions of Dürrenmatt s last dramatic text, must take into account, on the one hand, the ideatic and structural complexity of this work, and, on the other hand, the reception difficulties such complexity entails.

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One reception difficulty regards the mobility of this text: its constant processing motivated by Dürrenmatt s desire to improve the staging means, led to four versions out of which three were publishedone more problematic than the other. Another reception difficulty, which actually represents the core aspect of our study, regards the dense intertextual network constructed in all versions by means of the collage technique.

In fact it is a prochaine eclipse solaire suisse anti aging collage composed of three interdependent collages: one of them includes apparently unrelated historical figures, another one deals with fictional figures of universal literature where some characters baffle and, finally, a third collage includes motifs and themes characteristic of Dürrenmatt s dramatic work.

If these difficulties represent a challenge for the fields of Philology and Theatre, they confront the public with an almost impenetrable wall, a consequence of excessive abstruseness which, especially in the case of a play, may eclipse any other qualities of the text.

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Keywords: Friedrich Dürrenmatt, reception, intertextuality, abstruseness, collage Eine der wesentlichen Eigenarten des Schriftstellers Friedrich Dürrenmatt war, dass er mit seinen Schriften fast nie völlig zufrieden war und deshalb die Neigung hatte, sie ständig nachzubearbeiten. Das Stück Achterloo ist in dieser Hinsicht eines der besten Beispiele: entstanden wird dieser Dramentext innerhalb von fünf Jahren dreimal bearbeitet, wobei nur zwei dieser Bearbeitungen veröffentlicht werden Achterloo III und Achterloo IVund eine von denen, die letzte, zur Aufführung gelangt.

Dieses,work-in-progress sollte man als Ausdruck von Dürrenmatts unerschöpfbarer Kreativität betrachten. Diese Kreativität erkennt man auch auf der Ebene der Textgestaltung, nämlich in der Technik der Collage. Diese Technik, die nicht selten in literarischen Werken des Jahrhunderts zu entdecken ist, wird von Friedrich Dürrenmatt in Achterloo in einer interessanten und komplexen Weise benützt; er wendet sie auf drei prochaine eclipse solaire suisse anti aging Ebenen an: der der Geschichte, der der Weltliteratur und der des eigenen Gesamtwerks.

Indem wir die Technik der Collage als Form der Intertextualität betrachten, werden wir versuchen, ihr Funktionieren auf den genannten Ebenen zu erklären in erster Linie anhand von Dürrenmatts eigenen Fara riduri im Band Rollenspiele Kerr, Dürrenmatt, Der Text, den wir in unseren Untersuchungen in Betracht ziehen, ist natürlich nicht nur die erste Fassung des Stücks, sondern der ganze Achterloo-Komplex, der unbedingt in Beziehung zu seinen realen und fiktiven Prochaine eclipse solaire suisse anti aging betrachtet werden sollte.

Achterloo als Geschichte-Collage Bei einer ersten Lektüre des Dramentextes Achterloo gleichgültig welcher von den drei veröffentlichten Fassungen stellt man die unerwartete Mischung sehr verschiedener historischen Figuren unter ein Fragezeichen: Wie kommen alle diese Gestalten zusammen?

Die Gründe für die Auswahl dieser Gestalten bleiben aber noch undeutlich.

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  • Bucuresti, New Europe College, 4 martie Imaginarul comunist.
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Deswegen werden wir zunächst versuchen, sie anhand von Dürrenmatts eigenen Äußerungen im Band Rollenspiele zu erklären. Der Kommunismus hat immer eine Armee aufgebaut, aber die Partei hat immer über die Armee geherrscht.

Ich wählte statt Jaruzelski Napoleon; [ Dürrenmatt weist aber auch auf den wesentlichen Unterschied zwischen der historischen Figur von Bonaparte und seiner Projektion im Stück hin: Wollte Napoleon durch seine Machtergreifung den Krieg ermöglichen, will ihn Napoleon in Achterloo verhindern [ Der Dramatiker erklärt uns auch die Verbindung zwischen diesen Figuren: Hus war einer der ersten Revolutionäre gegen die Kirche.

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Ein Vorreformator. Alles ist vergrößert, Jaruzelski ist auch nicht Napoleon. Walesa will Freiheit im Kommunismus, Hus will Freiheit in der Kirche, es sind ähnliche Konstellationen, es ist naheliegend, in dieser Konstellation historische Parallelfiguren zu nehmen. Der Anspruch des Kommunismus ist ähnlich dem der katholischen Kirche: total. Den interessanten für manche jedoch skandalösen Vergleich zwischen dem Kommunismus und der Kirche finden wir in Dürrenmatts Äußerungen wieder, als er die Präsenz der drei Marxe bespricht: Sie weisen nicht nur auf die verschiedenen und zahlreichen 19 20 kommunistischen Führer des Jahrhunderts sondern auch auf die drei Päpste, die das Schisma auf dem Konstanzer Konzil beendeten: Ich habe zwei, drei Marxe, weil es heute verschiedene kommunistische Führer gibt, zuerst war da nur Stalin, dann Stalin und Tito, dann Stalin, Tito, Mao, und jetzt ist die Welt voller kommunistischer Führer, die sich alle auf Marx berufen wie die Kirche auf Christus, und der russische Generalsekretär prochaine eclipse solaire suisse anti aging nicht mehr der einzige,papst, das Ideal von Richelieu ist, Partei und Kirche zur großen Koalition der Weltherrschaft zu verbinden: Das Vorbild der Kommunistischen Partei ist die Kirche, meine ewige Behauptung.

Das Schisma damals entspricht dem,schisma der Kommunistischen Partei heute: Und wenn ich die drei Marxe im Stück habe, fehlen mir die drei Päpste, dramaturgisch begründe ich mit den drei Päpsten die verschiedenen Marxe, die ich auftauchen lasse Kerr; Dürrenmatt,